GUANGZHOU, July 13 (Xinhua) - Nine decades ago, two foreigners traversed the vast plains of Siberia and arrived in China to attend the first National Congress of the Communist Party of China (CPC). They were Hendricus Sneevliet from the Netherlands and Vladimir Neumann from Russia, representing the Communist International and the Russian Communist Party (Bolsheviks).
The CPC's first national congress, which was held in Shanghai in 1921, marked the CPC's founding and brought the hope of liberation and revival to China's people. Government researchers said that Sneevliet and Nikolskiy bore witness to the historical event.
Documents and pictures recording Sneevliet's activities in China at the time can be seen in a memorial hall dedicated to the CPC's third national congress in south China's city of Guangzhou.
A caption under one photo says that Sneevliet was elected as the executive member of the Second Congress of the Communist International in February 1920 and was appointed as the representative of the Communist International in China in August of the same year.
Under a photo of a royal residence in southwest China's Guilin city, a caption says that Sneevliet and early CPC leader Zhang Tailei met Sun Yat-sen at the residence at the end of 1921. Sun allowed CPC members to join the Nationalist Party of China after the meeting.
Sun was the founder of the Nationalist Party of China, or the Kuomingtang, and led the history-making 1911 revolution, also known as the Xinhai Revolution, which ended imperial rule in China.
According to CPC historians, dozens of foreigners came to China during the 1920s, spreading Marxism and helping the CPC to grow stronger.
They were sent directly by the Communist International or by the Russian Communist Party and the former Soviet Union government with the approval of the Communist International, according to researchers.
Chen Junfeng, director of a CPC history research center in south China's Guangdong Province, said that after the Communist International was founded in March 1919, Lenin paid a great deal of attention to communist activity in Asian nations. Before Sneevliet and Nikolskiy arrived in China, the Russian Communist Party had already sent a man named Grigoriy Voytinskiy to China to learn about revolutionary development in the spring of 1920.
Voytinskiy met Li Dazhao in Beijing and Chen Duxiu in Shanghai. The two men were leaders of the CPC in its early days. With the help of Voytinskiy, CPC organizations in Shanghai and Beijing grew quickly.
According to historical documents, the third National Congress of the CPC was held in Guangzhou in June 1923 with the help of the Communist International and its representatives in China.
The meeting led to the establishment of the "united front" policy and led to the Kuomintang cooperating with the CPC to conduct national revolutionary movements, according to researchers.
The meeting also led to the establishment of the Huangpu Military Academy. Experienced instructors were sent from the former Soviet Union to the academy to train Chinese military leaders.
Ninety years have passed since the creation of the CPC and the historical contributions of the former Soviet Union. Researchers have been able to look at the past with a critical eye, both applauding and decrying the former Soviet Union's contributions to the CPC.
In the book "the History of the Communist Party of China," published by the Party History Research Center of the CPC Central Committee, it is said that the Communist International and the Soviet Communist Party (Bolsheviks) gave correct guidance to the CPC in the midst of China's revolution, with some of the Russian communists sacrificing their lives for the cause, CPC researchers said.
However, some of their guidance was ill-advised, as the experts sent by Russia were not always aware of China's national condition, according to CPC researchers.
Chen Shu, a professor at the Party School of the CPC Central Committee, said that the Russian experts should be looked at objectively and that the contributions they made toward China's revolution and national liberation should be remembered.
Special Report: Celebrating 90th Anniversary of Founding of CPC