VI. China's Participation in Regional Non-Traditional Security Cooperation
1. Disaster Relief
Since 2015 the Chinese government has been actively involved in and promoted exchanges and cooperation on disaster relief in the Asia-Pacific region. China hosted the Eighth SCO Meeting of Heads of Emergency Prevention and Relief Agencies and the Third China-Japan-ROK Tabletop Exercise on Disaster Management, co-hosted with Malaysia the Fourth ARF Disaster Relief Exercise, and participated in the Third UN World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, Asian Ministerial Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, International Drill of the Emergency Prevention and Relief Agencies of the SCO Member States, the Ninth APEC Senior Disaster Management Officials' Forum and International Search and Rescue Advisory Group Asia-Pacific Regional Earthquake Response Exercise.
In January and July 2015 and in May 2016, when Malaysia, Myanmar and Sri Lanka were hit by devastating floods, China immediately provided relief supplies to the three countries. In the wake of severe earthquakes in Nepal in April 2015 China sent rescue and medical teams and transportation detachments to the country and provided mobile field hospitals in support of disaster-relief efforts.
The Chinese government will continue to work with relevant parties to improve mutual visits of officials, information sharing, personnel training, technological exchanges, simulation exercises, scientific research cooperation, material reserves and emergency aid, to enhance practical bilateral and multilateral cooperation in disaster relief, and improve disaster mitigation and relief capacity in the Asia-Pacific area.
2. Counter-Terrorism Cooperation
Since 2015 China has cooperated with a number of neighboring countries in combating terrorism-related human smuggling, and arrested a number of terrorist suspects and human smugglers active in the region. These efforts dealt a heavy blow to the illegal human smuggling networks of the "Eastern Turkistan Islamic Movement" (ETIM) and other terrorist organizations, and effectively countered and prevented the infiltration efforts of the ETIM and other terrorist organizations.
China has held bilateral anti-terrorism consultations with the US, Russia, Canada, the United Kingdom, India, Pakistan, the ROK and Indonesia, hosted the 13th ARF Inter-Sessional Meeting on Counter-terrorism and Transnational Crimes, and promoted cooperation on combating Internet-spread violent and terrorist audios/videos and cross-border terrorist activities. In addition, by taking an active part in the APEC Counter-terrorism Working Group, the Global Counter-terrorism Forum and the ASEAN plus China Meeting on Transnational Crime at ministerial level, China has strengthened exchanges in anti-terrorism cooperation.
China, Afghanistan, Pakistan and Tajikistan have established a coordination mechanism on counter-terrorism cooperation among the military forces of the four countries, aimed at conducting coordination on situation analysis, verification of clues, sharing of intelligence, capacity building, joint training and personnel training, and providing mutual assistance.
3. Cooperation in Combating Transnational Crimes
The Chinese government places high importance on combating trans-national crimes, and is committed to fully and earnestly implementing the United Nations Convention Against Transnational Organized Crime (UNTOC). China has concluded 123 judicial assistance and extradition treaties with 70 countries, and actively promoted the establishment of bilateral judicial and law-enforcement cooperation mechanisms with the US and Canada. These efforts have provided a solid legal basis and effective platform for China's cooperation with relevant countries in combating transnational crime in all forms.
China is actively involved in international cooperation in combating transnational organized crimes and maintains sound cooperation with the UN and other international and regional organizations. It has facilitated law-enforcement and security cooperation along the Mekong River and conducted multiple joint actions with Southeast Asian countries in combating transnational crimes, and effectively fought against human trafficking, telecom fraud, economic crimes and drug-related crimes that are prevalent in the region. In October 2015 China hosted the China-ASEAN Ministerial Dialogue on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation with the theme "Security for Prosperity" and the Ministerial Meeting on Law Enforcement and Security Cooperation along the Mekong River. In the Second Safe Mekong Joint Operation by China, Laos, Myanmar and Thailand, over 10,000 suspects were arrested, more than 9,000 drug-related cases were solved, and a large quantity of narcotics was seized.
China stands ready to enhance judicial and law-enforcement cooperation with relevant countries in a joint effort to fight transnational crimes, and calls on all countries to enhance their political will for international cooperation, overcome differences in legal systems, promote cooperation within the framework of the UNTOC, including cooperation on extradition, provide wide judicial assistance, and cooperate in the recovery and disposal of criminal proceeds. China also encourages countries concerned to negotiate and conclude bilateral extradition and judicial assistance treaties for more concrete outcomes in cooperation to combat trans-national crimes.
4. Cyber Security
Currently, cyber security is acquiring greater importance. Asia-Pacific countries are placing high importance on cyber security, increasing input and actively conducting dialogue and regional cooperation on this issue. China is a staunch supporter of and an active participant in international efforts to ensure cyber security. It believes that cyberspace should be used to promote economic and social development, maintain international peace and stability, and improve the well-being of mankind. Countries should strengthen dialogue and cooperation on the basis of mutual respect, equality and mutual benefit, and build a peaceful, secure, open and cooperative cyberspace and a multilateral, democratic and transparent international Internet regime. It is imperative that a universally accepted international code of conduct is formulated within the UN framework.
Since 2015 China has continued to promote cyber security within the UN framework, and been deeply involved in the process. China and other SCO member states have jointly submitted an updated version of the International Code of Conduct for Information Security to the UN General Assembly. China has contributed to the endeavors to formulate international rules governing cyberspace by taking an active part in and facilitating the efforts of the UN's Group of Governmental Experts on Cyber Security to produce its final report, which affirms that the principles enshrined in the Charter of the United Nations, including sovereign equality, non-interference in others' internal affairs, and non-use of force, also apply to cyberspace. China has also played a constructive role in the UN Internet Governance Forum and the High-Level Meeting on the Overall Review of the Implementation of the Outcomes of the World Summit on the Information Society.
China has continuously strengthened bilateral dialogues and practical cooperation on cyber security with countries in the region. China and Russia have signed the Information Security Cooperation Agreement and held a new round of consultation on cyber security. China-Japan-ROK, China-ROK and China-EU dialogues on cyber security have been held. China and the US held the High-Level Joint Dialogue on Cybercrime and Related Issues.
China attaches great importance to and takes an active part in regional mechanisms under the ARF, BRICS and SCO in order to promote balanced and inclusive development of network security cooperation in the region. China is actively involved in the BRICS Expert Working Group on Cyber-Security and the SCO Expert Group on International Information Security, and has worked on the Asian-African Legal Consultative Organization to establish a Working Group on International Legal Issues Concerning Cyber Space. China also hosted the Second World Internet Conference.
5. Cooperation on Maritime Security
The year 2015 was the year of China-ASEAN maritime cooperation. Maritime cooperation is a key part of building the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road. China and the ASEAN countries conducted a series of exchanges and cooperative events on maritime security, scientific research and environmental protection. China and Thailand conducted a scientific expedition in the Andaman Sea, and held the Fourth Joint Committee Meeting on Marine Cooperation. China and Malaysia signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Establishment of the China-Malaysia Joint Oceanographic Research Center. The construction of the China-Indonesia Center for the Oceans and Climate, and the Joint Oceanic Observation Station proceeded in an orderly way. The Third China-Southeast Asian Countries Marine Research and Environmental Protection Cooperation Forum was also held.
China has actively participated in and advanced dialogues and cooperation on maritime security. Since 2015 China has hosted the Asia-Pacific Heads of Maritime Administrations Conference, the multi-task exercise "Cooperation for Law Enforcement 2015" of the North Pacific Coast Guard Agencies Forum, International Training Course for Lighthouse Management Personnel in the Asia-Pacific Area and the Asia-Pacific Mass Rescue Operation Training Course and Tabletop Exercise. China has continued its cooperation with Australia and Malaysia in the search for Malaysian Airlines Flight MH370, and provided 20 million Australian dollars for follow-up search-and-rescue efforts in this regard.
China has vigorously supported the capacity building and development of the Information Sharing Center (ISC) under the Regional Cooperation Agreement on Combating Piracy and Armed Robbery, and accredited maritime police officers to the ISC. In June 2016, as requested by Vietnam, China dispatched vessels and airplanes to assist in searching for and rescuing Vietnamese airplanes which had crashed, along with their crew members. From December 2008 to January 2016 Chinese fleets sent to the Gulf of Aden and Somali waters as escorts conducted 909 missions, escorting 6,112 Chinese and foreign civilian vessels.
6. Cooperation in Non-Proliferation and Disarmament
China supports and takes an active part in international arms control, disarmament and non-proliferation efforts, and stands for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of nuclear weapons. China has earnestly implemented the outcomes of all the review conferences of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT), and played a constructive role in the Ninth NPT review conference and the P5 Conference on Implementing the NPT. China stands ready to work with all parties through unremitting efforts to achieve the three NPT goals of "nuclear non-proliferation and disarmament, and peaceful use of nuclear power."
China holds that establishing a Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone is of great significance for promoting regional and global peace and stability. China supports the efforts of ASEAN countries to establish a Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone, and stands for the early signing and going into effect of the protocol to the Treaty on the Southeast Asia Nuclear-Weapons-Free Zone. China has solved all the remaining issues concerning the protocol with ASEAN, and looks forward to the signing of the protocol at an early date. China will continue to participate constructively in consultation between ASEAN and the five nuclear countries, and facilitate consultation between ASEAN and the other four nuclear countries to resolve their differences so that the protocol can be signed and come into effect at an early date.
China stands for the complete prohibition and thorough destruction of all weapons of mass destruction, including chemical weapons, opposes the development, stockpiling and use of chemical weapons by any one, and supports the purposes and goals of the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, and the work of the Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW). China is earnest in fulfilling its obligations under the Chemical Weapons Convention in its entirety, and attaches great importance to and supports international exchanges and cooperation under the convention.
In 2015 China held the 13th Regional Meeting of National Authorities of Asian State Parties to the Convention on the Prohibition of the Development, Production, Stockpiling and Use of Chemical Weapons and on Their Destruction, hosted the Advanced Protection and Assistance Course with the OPCW, and held the Training Course on National Points of Contacts of States in the Asia-Pacific Region together with the UN Security Council 1540 Committee. China also participated in the Asian Senior-Level Talks on Non-Proliferation, ARF Inter-Sessional Workshop on Non-Proliferation, and other related events.
The Chinese people are working hard to realize the Chinese Dream of the great renewal of the Chinese nation. In this process, China will bring greater opportunities and benefits for development and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region. China's development adds to the momentum for world peace. China will firmly follow the path of peaceful development and the policy of "building friendship and partnership with neighboring countries" to create an amicable, secure and prosperous neighborhood. China remains committed to the principles of amity, sincerity, mutual benefit and inclusiveness in conducting neighborhood diplomacy and the goal of maintaining and promoting stability and prosperity in the Asia-Pacific region. China stands ready to work with all countries in the region to pursue mutually beneficial cooperation and steadily advance security dialogues and cooperation in the Asia-Pacific region, and the building of a new model of international relations so as to create a brighter future for this region.