Official Name: The Republic of the Sudan
Area: 1.88 million sq km
Sudan has a population of 30.89 million. Its official language is Arabic, whose speakers take up 60 percent of the population. English is also commonly used. Most residents are Sunni Muslims.
Capital: Khartoum, with a population of 6 million in 2010.
The capital's hottest month is July (the temperature is 26 to 42 degrees Celsius), and the coldest month is January (the temperature is 16 to 32 degrees Celsius).
Head of State: President Omar Hassan Ahmed Al-Bashir.
He came to power as the Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council for National Salvation. In October 1993, he became the president. He was re-elected the president in March 1996, December 2000, July 2005 and April 2010.
Major Holidays: The Independence Day (also the National Day): January 1. National Salvation Revolution Day: June 30.
Geography and Climate:
Situated in northeastern Africa and on the west bank of the Red Sea, Sudan borders Egypt to the north, Libya, Chad and Central Africa to the west, Southern Sudan to the south, and Ethiopia, Eritrea to the east. It has a 720-km coastline bordering the Red Sea. The climates in different parts of Sudan are diverse. From the north to the south, the climate varies from the tropical desert climate to the tropical rainforest one. In the hottest season, the temperature tops 50 degrees Celsius. The national average temperature in a year is 21 degrees Celsius. The country is always hit by drought, with an average annual rainfall of less than 100 millimeters. Lying on an ecotone, the country is vulnerable to the natural disasters such as drought, flood and desertification.
Bilateral relations with China:
In 2010, friendly and cooperative relations between the People's Republic of China and the Republic of the Sudan continued to enjoy in-depth development.
The two countries maintained high-level contacts. In April, President Hu Jintao and Vice President Xi Jinping sent congratulatory messages to Sudanese President Omer Hassan Ahmed El Bashir and First Vice President and President of the semi-autonomous government of Southern Sudan Salva Kiir Mayardit respectively on their re-elections in the national election. In May, Minister of Health Chen Zhu, as the Special Envoy of President Hu Jintao, attended the inauguration ceremony of Sudanese President Bashir. In June, Foreign Minister Yang Jiechi sent a congratulatory message to Sudanese Foreign Minister Ali Ahmed Karti on his appointment. Chinese Special Representative on the Darfur Issue Liu Guijin visited Sudan three times in March, July and November respectively. In April, Sudanese President Bashir sent a message of condolences to President Hu Jintao over the earthquake in Yushu, Qinghai Province. In May, Al-Tigani Salih Fedail, Minister of International Cooperation of Sudan, came to China to attend the Fourth Ministerial Meeting of the Forum on China-Africa Cooperation(FOCAC). In July, the National Pavilion Day of Sudan was held during the Shanghai World Expo. In the same month, Nafie Ali Nafie, Co-deputy Chairman of the Sudanese National Congress Party and Presidential Assistant, visited China and toured the Shanghai World Expo. In October, Speaker of the Southern Sudan Legislative Assembly James Wani Igga visited China. In November, Sudanese Cabinet Affairs Minister Luka Byong visited China. Sudanese Foreign Minister Karti visited China twice in September and December respectively.
Economic and trade cooperation between the two countries developed steadily. The cooperation between China and Sudan in oil continued to deepen, and the "oil, credit and engineering" package moved forward smoothly. Agricultural cooperation also progressed. In August, Zubair Hassan, Economic Secretary of the National Congress Party of Sudan, and Abdul-Halim Ismail Al-Mutaafi, Sudanese Minister of Agriculture, came to China to attend the China-Africa Agricultural Forum. In September, Awut Deng Acuil, Minister of Labor and Public Service of the semi-autonomous government of Southern Sudan, led a high-level group to China for a study tour on agriculture. In November, the Sudanese Minister of Minerals attended the China International Mining Conference, during which the two countries signed the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Ministry of Land and Resources of the People's Republic of China and the Ministry of Minerals of the Republic of the Sudan on Cooperation in the Mining Industry.
Exchanges and cooperation between the two countries in fields such as culture, education and health were carried out successfully. By September 2010, the Confucius Institute of the University of Khartoum had held more than 20 short-term Chinese language courses for over 150 students from the Sudanese government and the Ministry of Minerals. China had received 580 Sudanese students on scholarships. The Chinese government continued to send medical teams to Sudan, and currently there are 36 medical team members working in Sudan. In September, Sudanese Justice Minister Mohamed Bushara Dousa came to China to attend the Second FOCAC-Legal Forum.