On May 23, 1951, representatives of the Central
Government and local government of Tibet signed the Agreement Between the
Central Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Method for the Peaceful
Liberation of Tibet (also known as The 17-Article Agreement) in the hall of
Qingzhengdian, in Zhongnanhai, in Beijing. On the following day, Chairman Mao
Zedong gave a banquet in honor of the representatives of both sides in the hall
of Huairentan, in Zhongnanhai, to celebrate the signing of the agreement
regarding the peaceful liberation of Tibet.
Chairman Mao said happily, "Now, the forces led by
the Dalai Lama and those led by the 10th Panchen Erdeni and the Central
Government have become united. This has been achieved after the Chinese people
overthrew the imperialist and domestic reactionary rule." The People's Daily
carried the full text of the agreement.
After the 17-Article Agreement was signed, the 14th
Dalai, who was in Yadong, a small town in south Tibet, ready to flee to a
foreign country at any time, cabled Chairman Mao:
"Chairman Mao of the Central People's Government:
"This year the local government of Tibet sent five
delegates with full authority headed by Kaloon Ngapoi to Beijing in late April
1951 to conduct peace talks with delegates with full authority appointed by the
Central People's Government.
"On the basis of friendship, delegates on both sides
concluded the Agreement on Measures for the Peaceful Liberation of Tibet on May
"The local government of Tibet as well as the Tibetan
monks and laymen unanimously support this agreement, and under the leadership of
Chairman Mao and the Central People's Government, will actively assist the
People's Liberation Army in Tibet to consolidate national defense, drive
imperialist influences out of Tibet and safeguard the unification of the
territory and the sovereignty of the motherland. I hereby send this cable to
inform you of this."
Dalai Lama of the Local Government of Tibet
Oct. 24, 1951 of the Solar Calendar
Chairman Mao cabled Dalai Lama:
Mr. Dalai Lama, I have received your letter dating on
Oct. 24, 1951. I would like to thank you for your efforts to sign the agreement
concerning the peaceful liberation of Tibet and would also like to extend my
sincere congratulations to you.
Oct. 26, 1951.
Photo from the State Archives
Administration of the People's Republic of China shows the cable the 14th
Dalai Lama wrote to Chairman Mao Zedong, expressing his support for the
agreement regarding the peaceful liberation of Tibet. It states clearly in
the cable that the Dalai Lama would advocate the Agreement Between the
Central Government and the Local Government of Tibet on Methods for the
Peaceful Liberation of Tibet and safeguard China's territorial and
sovereignty integrity "under the leadership of Chairman Mao and the
Central Government." (Xinhua file Photo)
At the First National People's Congress, the 14th
Dalai Lama was elected a vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of the NPC,
thus becoming a young leader of New China.
The 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen
Erdeni vote on a draft resolution on the Constitution in this file photo.
The 14th Dalai Lama and the 10th Panchen Erdeni together attended the
First National People's Congress in 1954.
Chairman Mao gave the 14th Dalai Lama 12 letters and
cables from 1951 to 1957, with seven letters written personally by himself.
Zhang Jingwu, representative of the Central Government in Tibet, delivered the
first letter to Dalai from India to Yadong, a small town in southern Tibet. He
also advised Dalai to return to Lhasa. The last letter was written on Aug. 18,
1957, in which Chairman Mao praised Dalai for returning to Tibet from India.
From the letter and cables we can see that Chairman
Mao had pinned great hopes on young Dalai and that he hoped that the 17-Article
Agreement would be implemented with Dalai's efforts. With regard to the reform
that did not involve the political power of old Tibet and that would maintain
the original political and religious status, young Dalai always got things done
with a great enthusiasm. Nevertheless, if the reform was designed to grant
farmers and herdsmen greater rights and interests, he then became very inactive.
In particular, on the issue regarding China's unification, Dalai usually took a
wait-and-see attitude and agreed with it overtly but opposed it covertly.
After a rebellion took place in Tibet on March 10 in
1959, Mao Zedong once spoke of the Dalai Lama's fleeing abroad at the 16th
supreme state conference.
The leader said, "If he is willing to return home and
is able to get rid the reactionaries, then we hope he will do. However, in fact
it seems impossible for him to return home. Is it possible for him to change his
own world outlook? Perhaps he will do so in 60 years, maybe it will not take 60
years. But as the matter stands now, it is unrealistic to expect him to return
within a very short time. If he wants to return, he can do so tomorrow. "
In a talk with the 10th Panchen Erdeni and Ngapoi
Ngawang Jigme in Beijing on May 7, 1959, Chairman Mao said: "As for the Dalai
Lama, one possibility is that he will return and the other is that he will not
come back. Messages carried by Indian newspapers show that he is planning to
return. But the two statements he made thoroughly oppose the Central Government
and the big family of the motherland, and advocate Tibet independence. As a
result, he has blocked his own way back home."
Mao added, "Even so, we still leave leeway for him
and elected him vice-chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's
Congress. Furthermore, the position of the chairman of the Preparatory Committee
of the Founding of the Tibet Autonomous Region is still kept for him. By leaving
leeway for him, we' have taken the initiative in our hands."
In this way, the Central Government waited patiently
for the Dalai Lama to change his attitude toward splitting the motherland. His
post of NPC Standing Committee vice chairman was retained until 1964.
Since fleeing abroad in 1959, the Dalai Lama has
never stopped activities to split the motherland in both words and deeds. Before
the 1970s, the Dalai Lama and his clique remained in the state of silence.
However, ever since the 1970s, especially since 1989, the Dalai Lama became
quite active in the international arena, with the support of Western anti-China
He has visited 64 countries and regions and
visited Taiwan twice. He visited nine countries at least ten times. For instance, he
had visited Norway ten times, Austria, 12 times, Japan, 13 times, Britain, 16
times, Switzerland, 19 times, France, 20 times, Italy, 22 times, Germany, 32
times, and the U.S., 36 times.
In all the countries and regions the Dalai Lama visited, he was received by local principal politicians. However, As a matter of fact, the leaders of the Western countries are clear that they met him not because Dalai had a great personal charm or had a high international status, but because they wanted to use his political value to divert China's attention and impede its development and rise. It's not hard to tell which country supports him most strongly just from the number of his visits to the countries.