The 14th Dalai Lama
The 14th Dalai Lama, Dainzin Gyamco, is a son of a
farmer in Dangcai Village, near Taer Monastery, in west China's Qinghai
Province. He was born on May 5, 1935 and was originally named Lhamo Toinzhub.
Following the death of the 13th Dalai Lama on Dec, 17,1933, Tibet's Gaxag
Government and three monasteries in Lhasa (Sera Monastery, Ganden Monastery and
Drepung Monastery) started searching for the reincarnated soul boy in accordance
with religious practices.
Three candidates for the soul boy were found. In
accordance with the 29-Article Imperially Approved Ordinance for the More
Efficient Governing of Tibet by the Qing dynasty, the soul boy must be approved
by the Qing Government. Moreover, the regulations stipulate that if there are
several candidates, the soul boy shall be decided by drawing a lot from a gold
urn. At the lot-drawing ceremony, the lots bearing the names of candidates in
Chinese, Mandarin and Tibetan languages are put into a gold urn and drawn by the
Grand Minister Resident of Tibet of Qing dynasty in the face of the
representatives of Tibetan monks and lay people.
The picture shows the 29-Article
Imperially Approved Ordinance for the More Efficient Governing of Tibet.
(Xinhua file Photo)
If the candidate with the lot bearing his name has
the lucky number, he shall be the reincarnated soul boy of the dead Dalai or
Panchen. The result of the lot drawing shall be reported to the emperor or the
central government of the Qing dynasty for approval. Since there were three
candidates for the soul boy of the 13th Dalai, a lot-drawing process was
essential. In the winter of 1938, Living Buddha Prince Regent Razheng of the
Tibetan government reported to Wu Zhongxin, commissioner of the Chinese
Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs of the Nationalist Government, that
Lhamo Toinzhub, the reincarnated soul boy of the 13th Dalai, had been found in
Qinghai Province. The Nationalist Government then instructed Ma Bufang, chairman
of the Qinghai provincial government, to send troops to escort the soul boy to
Tibet and also allocated 100,000 silver dollars as travel expenses.
In this file photo, monks and officials
of the local government of Tibet host a grand ceremony to welcome Wu
Zhongxin, commissioner of the Chinese Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan
Affairs of the Nationalist Government, in Drepung Monastery in Lhasa. Wu
arrived in Lhasa on Jan. 15, 1939, to preside over the ceremony of the
14th Dalai Lama's title-giving and enthronement. (Xinhua file
Lhamo Toinzhub and his entourage left Xining, the
capital of Qinghai Province, in July, 1939 and arrived in Lhasa in October. The
Gaxag government reported Chiang Kai-shek, chairman of the Nationalist
Government, saying "the title-granting, ordainment and a sitting-in-bed ceremony
(enthronement ceremony) for the soul boy shall be held on an auspicious day and
the date shall be submitted to the government soon."
Later, Prince Regent Razheng of the local Tibetan
government reported to the Central Government that as Lhamo Toinzhub, the soul
boy from Qinghai Province, was exceptionally "intelligent." He proposed that the
soul boy should be exempt from the lot-drawing procedure. On Jan. 26, 1940,
Razheng wrote to Wu, saying that "All Tibetan monks and lay people, old and
young, rich and poor, all sincerely believe (Lhamo Toinzhub) is the
reincarnation of the 13th Dalai. As all hold the same opinion, a lot-drawing
process is unnecessary and the ordainment ceremony can be held as stipulated.
All this has been reported to the Central Government for approval."
Wu cabled the Executive Yuan of the Nationalist
Government the following day after he received the letter. Chiang, then chairman
of the Executive Yuan, reported to the Nationalist Government on 31, Jan, asking
for permission that the lot-drawing be exempted and allow Lhamo Toinzhub be
enthroned as the 14th Dalai Lama. Chiang also asked for fund for the
sitting-in-bed ceremony. On Feb. 3, Lin Sen, chairman of the Nationalist
Government, issued an order on behalf of the Nationalist Government, which
"Order from the Nationalist Government: the Qinghai
soul boy Lhamo Toinzhub, with unusual wisdom and extraordinarily intelligent
signs, has been found as the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama and should be
allowed to ascend his throne as the 14the Dalai Lama without going through the
lot-drawing ceremony. "
On Feb. 22, 1940, in accordance with historical regulations and the requirement of the local Tibetan government, the Nationalist Government dispatched Wu Zhongxin, commissioner of the Chinese Commission for Mongolian and Tibetan Affairs, to Tibet for the sitting-in-bed ceremony. Wu visited the soul boy on behalf of the Central Government and then presided over the enthronement ceremony.