BEIJING, June 14, 2004 (Xinhuanet) -- June 28 this year will mark the 50th anniversary of the introduction of the Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence, which are mutual respect for sovereignty andterritorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit, and
With the end of the Second World War, movements of
national independence and liberation flourished in Asia, Africa and Latin
America. Newly independent nations demanded the establishment of new patterns of
international relations based on equality to maintain their national sovereignty
and develop their economies.
The Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence were
produced precisely in response to this strong and common demand of newly
After their rebirths, China and India, two giants in
Asia, established diplomatic relations on April 1, 1950. On April 29, 1954, the
two countries signed an agreement on trade and communications between the
Chinese region of Tibet and India, introducing for the first time the Five
Principles of Peaceful Co-existence into the preface of the agreement.
In June 1954, former Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai
visited India and Myanmar at the invitation of the two countries and held talks
with his then Indian and Myanmese counterparts, Jawaharlal Nehru and U Nu.
Consequently, in the "Joint Declaration of Chinese
and Indian Premiers" issued on June 28 and the "Joint Declaration of Chinese and
Myanmese Premiers" issued on the following day, the Five Principles of Peaceful
Co-existence were officially announced as the basic norms guiding the
Sino-Indian and Sino-Myanmese relations.
The Sino-Indian joint declaration proposed that
"these principles not only be applicable to relations between nations, but also
to the general international relationship," while the Sino-Myanmese joint
declaration expressed the hope that "these principles will be observed by all
In April 1955 -- one year after China, India and
Myanmar initiated the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-existence, a total of 29
newly independent nations from Asia and Africa held the historic "Asian-African
Conference" in Bandung, Indonesia. As a result of the common efforts of the
participants, the conference adopted the "Declaration on Promotion of World
Peace and Cooperation" and formulated the 10 principles of the Bandung
These 10 principles, which contained all points in
the five principles of peaceful co-existence, represented an extension and
development of the latter.
Since then, the Five Principles of Peaceful
Co-existence have been recognized and accepted by more and more nations,
international organizations and international meetings, and have been
incorporated into a series of major international documents, including
declarations adopted by the United Nations General Assembly.
The five principles were also reaffirmed in the
documents on China's establishment of diplomatic relations with more than 160
nations, and in treaties as well as communiques China has signed with other